Thursday, October 31, 2019

Unemployment after graduation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Unemployment after graduation - Essay Example In the American workforce, for example, millennial are less than 30%. The remaining 70% attended college in the 1970s and 1980s. This workforce educated in the 1970s is responsible for making decisions whether one can join their business based on their conservative and primitive ideas of what the ideal candidate should have. Before reaching the interview phase, someone screens out tons of resumes that a company receives. If one’s resume does not have the perfect majors, one never comes to know them in person but hopes to be the best match for the job. Lots of recruitment are not done by HR professionals but are carried out by technical managers who seek for individual with similar career and academic backgrounds as them. University and college education is more of innovation, which many managers fail to capture (Medien n.d.). Graduates who were leaving college and university found it hard to get jobs in 2011 more than students finishing A-level courses. This observation was made while youth unemployment reached its highest level since the 1980s. About one in 10 students is unemployed six months after graduation. Approximately 9% of those who finish full-time degrees are out of work. In 2011-2012, out of more than 230,000 graduates, 72% were working, 15 % were studying while 9% were unemployed (Sharma 2014). When unemployed graduates seek work for six or more months is considered as the worst form of joblessness. The consequences of long periods of joblessness are significant. The graduates face personal, financial, and health care hardships. An analysis of long-term unemployment for the period running from 2000 to 2003 reveals that people without employment for six or months has increased at a high rate of 198.2%. Job seekers with college degrees have hard times getting employment and their long term unemployment rises by 299.4%. In an effort to the jobless recovery, job creation

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Marketing 4p assigment Essay Example for Free

Marketing 4p assigment Essay INTRODUCTION 1. 0 BACKGROUND OF THE ORGANIZATIONS: Backed by more than 20 years of experience in Japan, Sushi Zanmai possesses extensive expertise for raw materials selection. Base on the nature of Business is classified as Food Beverage industry. The purpose of their business is serves the best food and services to each customers. Genuine ingredients coupled with original recipes and original taste, they provide more than 100 assortments of sushi and 100 varieties of cooked food that are authentically Japanese. They now have 10 outlets in Malaysia which is at Sunway Pramid, One Utama, Garden Mall, Low Yat Plaza, Paradigm Mall, Fahrenheit 88 and 1 Month Kiara. They have their own wedsite for customers more easily to find out the most nearby location and know what is new on that month. The main selling product is sushi other that they also have sell noodles, rice set, desserts, and beverages. That sushi of colour plate starts from RM1. 80. 2. 0 THE PRODUCT OF SUSHI ZANMAI Sushi Zanmai is originated from Japan. They are offering the combination of tangible goods and services in their business. They provide traditional Japanese foods and services on their business. They business are on direct sell foods to customers. They have serves appetiser which the Japanese meal begins with a visual feast of chilled and warm appetisers, like: Salmon roe Japanese omelette Potato Mayonnaise Sushi Zanmai created own specialties featuring the freshest, handpicked ingredients provide a fresh, contemporary spin on much-loved favourites, exquisitely tailored to suit local taste preferences such as, Sanshoku Hana Salmon Caterpillar Roll Wasabillar Roll The traditional entree consists of expertly-sliced raw fish, shellfish or mollusks, complemented perfectly by the combination of wasabi and soy sauce, and often accompanied by pickled ginger, example Salmon sashimi Toro sashimi Maguro sashimi According to survey, most of the female prefer sushi salad that the reason Sushi Zanmai products include various types of Salad to let customers choose too. As you can see the three popular salad dishes are Sashimi Salad Salmon Salad Kaiso to Tofu Salad Rolled sushi in Japanese language is pronounces maki. It usually comprises of seafood which may or may not be raw, vinegared rice and paper-thin seaweed. For example, Salmon Maki Soft Shell Crab Maki Natto Maki Follow that, they do have Temaki. The â€Å"te† in Temaki means hand is Japanese language. The Temaki sushi is two- fold. It not only refers to a hand roll that is made entirely with the hand, without the traditional bamboo mat. The cone-shaped Temaki sushi is ofeten prepared as an appetizer. Soft Shell crab Temaki Ikura Temaki Unagi Temaki Other than that, noodles are also usually customers will order it. They have provide three types of noodles one is soba which is made from wheat flour, Udon made from wheat flour, Ramen made from Chinese wheat flour and served with a wide range of soup stocks such as soy-sauce base and salt base. Sansai Udon Niku Ramen Kakaiage soba Donburi a dishes consist of a deep bowl of rice topped off with chicken, beef or seafood cooked in a variety of styles and sauces. They have, Curry Rice Unadon Ebidon In beverages, they served many types of drinks like Green Tea, Calpis Smoothies, fine Japanese Sake, Soft Drinks, Japanese Plum Wine and others. Green Tea (unlimited refill) Ichigo Smoothies Choya Extreme A dessert to end the meals. It have multiple choice as well as, Macha Macha Parfait Itachoco Monaka Stawberry Parfait For the level of the product and services, Sushi Zanmai is selling the product which is categories in actual product. They have their own brand name, design, packaging that deliver the core benefit to customers. They are selling high quality level product that most of the ingredients are import from Japan such as Salmon, tuna, sea bream, Eel and etc. Besides, Sushi Zanmai are selling the shopping product goods which is one of the important consumer goods in market. There have few reason because of Sushi Zanmai’s product is belong to shopping product. Sushi Zanmai of products is consumers purchase and consume on a less frequent schedule compared to convenience products. Normally, they opened their business inside the shopping mall and which is high class and crowded shopping mall. They will do more selective when choosing distribution outlets to sell their products. However, customers are willing to spend more time locating their products since they are relatively more expensive than convenience products and because these may process additional psychological benefits for the purchaser, such as raising customers status level within their social group. 3. 0 THE PRICING STRATEGY THAT USED BY SUSHI ZANMAI Sushi Zanmai has successfully follows the price skimming strategy when setting the price of its products. The price skimming strategy allows Sushi Zanmai to charge a price that is above the competition, but also promote frequent sales to lower the price below them. Different groups of customers are willing to pay different prices for the same product. Sushi Zanmai can sell â€Å"The Extreme† to the customers who will pay the higher price to be the first to buy and also to the bargain hunters. Finally, this strategy will emphasize the product and service quality. Sushi Zanmai sets a high initial price for its products to send a signal to customers that its products are quality and the service is excellent. Next, Sushi Zanmai also using price line and price bundle as the pricing strategies. Product Line Pricing They have selling same product of food but different categories. Every guest has different taste and love different type of cruise that the reason Sushi Zanmai has to classify as well. Certainly, different materiel of food sure is different price charging. For example: Sushi Name Ingredients Price Inari Sakura Shiitake fish floss RM3. 80 Kaki Fry Roll Friend oyster sushi roll topped with mayonnaise RM9. 80 Dragon Roll Fried prawn sushi roll topped with avocado RM12. 80 Rice Name Ingredients Price Ebidon Deep fried prawn with egg on rice RM8. 80 Chiken Katsu Curry Chicken cutlet and rice with curry sauce RM10. 80 Unadon Roasted eel on rice RM15. 80 Noodles Name Ingredients Price Tsukimi Udon or ramen noddles with egg RM6. 80 Sansai Udon or soba noodle with vegetables RM8. 80 Curry Udon or ramen noodle with chicken curry RM10. 80 Product Bundle Pricing Sushi Zanmai has offering set promotion to attract more guests to purchase their products. Set promotion is type of bundle strategy. It can let guests feel the price is lower or cheaper but just have in certain and limited lime for it, like: Chicken Keraage Don and ice lemon tea for only RM7. 90 As manager will be considered in a few points when setting the bundle pricing strategy: Customer demands, sort out which is the product of the guests prefer or like it. Customers always pursue cheaper price, Target profit; make sure will reach the target. 4. 0 PLACE OF SUSHI ZANMAI Location is very important to those in Food and Beverage industry, as the product they sell is shopping product, the customers should not be able to take far complications to reach their shop. Normally, Sushi Zanmai chooses to open their new outlet inside the shopping mall that those people visit regularly. Below as those outlets of Sushi Zanmai in Malaysia : †¢SUSHI ZANMAI, SUNWAY PIRAMID †¢SUSHI ZANMAI, LOW YAT PLAZA †¢SUSHI ZANMAI, 1 UTAMA †¢SUSHI ZANMAI, THE GARDENS MALL †¢SUSHI ZANMAI, FAHRENHEIT 88 †¢SUSHI ZANMAI, 1 M ONT’KIARA †¢SUSHI ZANMAI, PARADIGM MALL One of the outlets of Sushi Zanmai in K. L Distribution Sushi Zanmai’s distribution channel is a direct channel as they are selling their product directly to the customers. Their distribution channel is considered as a direct channel, and it is the best suitable method to do for selling sushi, udon and beverage to the customers. As Sushi Zanmai are being in food and beverage industry, the best way to serve their customers is by serving them nicely and directly. The shopkeepers who are preparing meal in front of the customers 5. 0 PROMOTION OF SUSHI ZANMAI Sushi Zanmai are using promotion methods which are Advertising and Sales Promotion. For advertising promotion purpose, they have created a web page over the internet that those people could get the information which about them with visiting their web page. Other than that, for the reasons of nowadays most of the people are having an account on facebook, so that they have created a facebook web page to be distributed among the facebook page. The facebook users or customers might do a feedback or recommendations that about them through their facebook page. Web page of Sushi Zanmai Sales promotional sets will be made to promote their products to let the customers try and enjoy their product and to create strong customer relationships by promoting personally and friendly service. Their popular promotional methods are: Have 50 % discounts for only these 4 types of items. The duration of this promotion is just for one week. Sushi Zanmai have did the promotion that shown as above. The customers will get a Chicken Karaage Don for only RM 6. 80 after finish the steps that set by them. Free RM 20 Sushi Zanmai voucher for those customers whom spend RM100 or above in any of their outlets. The duration for this voucher is just for one month. 6. 0 Improvements in 4p’strategies of Sushi Zanmai Product Sushi Zanmai should activate the strategy of product development and come up with new products from time to time as it is important to maintain the preference of the customers with the new developed products. For example, the organization can come up with new type of rice and new sushi flavour or developing new menu items in single orders such as Udon and etc. Place Shopping mall actually is a not bad idea for open a restaurant but also need to careful about the visibility. A restaurant that is located on a crowded place has high visibility. Conversely, a restaurant nestled on a not crowded place will always battle a disadvantage simply based on its location. Pricing Sushi Zanmai should be try not setting too higher price to attract more other guests purchase your product and also can earn more profit. Promotion Sushi Zanmai can also be improved by creating more value sets that prompts the customers to try out the new products made for specific period as a special promotion during particular season such as Valentine’ Day and Merry Christmas or holiday season value sets for example Advertising on TV Sushi Zanmai shoud has advertising on TV. Television is the most powerful advertising medium available. The largest corporations around the world use it to build their brands, bring customers, add credibility, and grow their businesses. Delivery Services Add delivery services. It can help a company gaining popularity and becoming more available. 7. 0 Conclusion In conclusion, i would like conclude by listing the 4p’strategies that regarding of is price, place, promotion and product. They are offering the combination of tangible goods and services in their business. In setting pricing the Sushi Zanmai is using price skimming for their products. For the place and distribution, The Sushi Zanmai is use direct as their channel. Moreover, the Therefore, Sushi Zanmai should improve its product quality and take considered action in order to improve the sales as expected.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Tobacco Industry: Demand And Supply

Tobacco Industry: Demand And Supply The following essay helps us know what demand and supply concept and that we are explaining with the example of cigarette industry. And we have also mentioned the factors affecting the demand and supply for cigarettes in the market. The essay also includes the income effect, impact of close substitutes and compliments, and also the price and income elasticity of the product of the industry. A cigarette is a product consumed through smoking and manufactured out of cured and finely cut tobacco leaves and reconstituted tobacco, often combined with other additives,[1] then rolled or stuffed into a paper-wrapped cylinder (generally equal to 100 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter). Rates of cigarette vary widely. While rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in the developed nations, they continue to rise in developing nations. Cigarettes are the most frequent source of fires in private homes and the European Union willing to ban cigarettes that are not fire-safe by 2011. Fixing the price of a product is a very important factor for an organisation and the product success. Organizations look at the effective demand (demand) and effective supply (supply) of a product to set the best price to generate the maximum revenue for the organisation. If the price of the product increases or decrease then it can affect the demand of the product. As the price of a good rises less will be demanded, and if the price falls more will be demanded (Philp Galt, 2009, Lecture Notes, p: 2). The increase or decrease in price can happen due to the either external or internal or both environments of the organisation. The major companies that are the major share holders of the UK market are 1. Gallaher Group Ltd with the 37.90% of the market share. 2. Imperial Tobacco Ltd with the 35.40% of the market share. 3. Rothmans Ltd with the 18.20% of the market share. The other have the market share of 3.80% and the private label are of 4.70% holds the market share respectively. (Data monitors, 2005) Demand of a product or service can be defined as the amount of a particular economic good or service that a consumer or group of consumers will want to purchase at a given price over a specific period of time. The demand is usually downward sloping, since consumers will want to buy more as the price decreases. Demand for a good or service is determined by different factors other than price, such as the price of substitute goods and complementary goods. In extreme cases, demand may be completely unrelated to price, or nearly infinite at a given price (in the case of the tobacco industry) (Beardshaw, 1991). According to Philp, Dan and Galt (2009) it could be deduced that demand relative to the tobacco industry is caused by a number of aspects in which the key driver is the price of the cigarettes. As a result, for a cigarette (t) the quantity demanded (QtD) represents a function of its price (pt), individual customer (n) income levels (Y1à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Yn), other forms of substitutes like electronic cigarettes and herbal cigarettes (r1à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦rt-1) and other external factors (E) such as labour, raw material. Then, demand within the tobacco industry can be represented as QtD = f (pt, Y1à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Yn, r1à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦rt-1, E) Being consistent with this, influential demand in economics (tobacco industry) would be hard to figure the quantity demanded due to the number of determinants required to make-up the cigarette packets price and quantity, therefore, it is assumed that all factors are held constant and the market (quantity demanded) is analysed as a function of packet price. So the quantity demanded QtD = f (pt, Y1à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Yn, r1à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦rt-1, E) Graphically illustrated will be Following the above figure, managers would be able to depict that the higher the price of the cigarette packets in the industry, the lower the demand for it. Consequently prices will have to move from p0 to p1 in order to increase demand from q0 to q1. Consider two extreme cases. Suppose the price of all cigarettes rises by 1 per cent. The quantity of cigarettes demanded will not affect that much. People who can easily quit smoking have already done so. In contrast, suppose the price of a particular brand of cigarettes rises by 1 per cent, all other brand prices remaining unchanged. We expect a much larger quantity response. Consumers switch from the dearer brand to other brands that also satisfy the nicotine habit. For a particular cigarette brand the demand elasticity is quite high. From the above figure it can be noted that the same $1 tax has a much larger impact on quantity when demand is more elastic than when it is inelastic. Elasticity is the responsiveness of one variable (e.g. demand) to a change in another (e.g. price). This concept is fundamental to understanding how market works. The more elastic variable is, the more responsive the market to changing circumstances (Sloman, 2005). The law of demand states that a fall in the price of a good raises the quantity demanded. The price elasticity of demand measures how much the quantity demanded responds to a change in price. (Mankiw, 1998) Cigarette consumption is totally found to be negatively related to price. As far the result of the test, surveys and the studies done before, there result says that increase in price on cigarettes are not that much affected on the demand of it. Many economists viewed that cigarette smoking is illogical and therefore not suitable for usual economic analysis. They believe that demand for cigarettes does not follow the basic law of economics including the downward-sloping demand curve. Findings on how demand for cigarettes changes as consumers income increases is inconsistent. From a number of studies it found that income has either negative effect or insignificant effect on the demand of cigarettes. As far as the government and other health concern trust are trying to stop smoking in public place and in the private work sites because it is very harmful for other who is non smoker and it is not environmental friendly (Bradford, 2003, Vol 9). Government at all levels are adopting the policies to limit smoking. Government also banned that it the customer should be above a legal age to buy the cigarettes. World health organisation survey of smoking control policies in lot of countries indicated that the mostly all the countries have adopted policies to limit smoking in public places. Although the restrictions are primarily intended to reduce non-smokers, they can also affect the smokers since the restrictions reduce the smokers opportunities to smoke or otherwise raise the cost of smoking (Reuijl Leeflang, 1985, Vol 49). Cigarettes was the one of the most advertised and promoted product in the world. But due to some controversial issues many countries restrict it. While some other countries have few restrictions, others ban advertising and promotion completely. Due to the restriction on the advertising and the promotion the demand of the cigarette industry was affected. A lot of new opportunities of the new organization to enter are hard. And the new customers or consumers are decreased. And due to this there is less increase in the quantity of the young generation. Cigarettes are been long been taxed by the government and due to this there is rise in the price in some countries. Taxes are varying from country to country and the price also. The inelastic demand off the product makes good revenue for the government. But in recent taxation has been applied to cigarettes are in order to health. Cigarette taxes in some countries such as the United States have been imposed by various levels of government, national, state and local level. Governments in nearly every country impose taxes on cigarettes and other tobacco products. One of the major factors that affect the demand for any product is due to the substitutes. The more substitutes, the more elastic the demand will be. For example, if the price of petrol went up by  £0.25, consumers could replace public transport. This means that petrol is an elastic good because a raise in price will cause a large decrease in demand as consumers start travelling by the public transport more from private transport. The rise of the fuel price can affect the automobile industry. This factor is also known as the invisible hand (Adam Smith Cited in Mishan, 1993, p 91) which is affected from the variation of the other product or substitutes which affects the main product demand in the market. For the tobacco industry the invisible hand factor is not that much affected but the competition in the market within the industry is high. If the price of alcohol goes up as a whole, there will be probably a little change in the consumption of beer and other products because there are only few substitutes for alcohol. Most people are not willing to give up their enjoyment at any cost and even the alcohol is used in several medicines also so no matter what the price is the consumption of alcohol will be not affected by the substitutes. Therefore, we would say, that alcohol is an inelastic product because of its lack of substitutes. So we can say that a product is elastic in the industry but the complete industry tends to be inelastic. This is the second factor that effects the demand elasticity and it refers the total amount of a person that can be spend on a particular product or good. Like, if the price of a chocolate goes up from  £1 to  £2 and income of the customer remains the same, the amount that is available to spend on chocolate is for e.g.  £4, is now enough for only 2 rather than 4 chocolates. In other words, the customer is forced to reduce the demand of chocolate. Thus if there is an increase in price and no change in the amount of income available to spend on the product then there will be an elastic reaction in demand. But in cigarette industry it is not that much affected because of the addiction of the consumer. Time is the third factor which influences the demand elasticity. If the price of packet of cigarette goes up  £1, a smoker with a very few available substitutes will continue buying the daily cigarettes. It means that cigarettes have inelastic demand because the changes in price will not have a great influence on the quantity demanded. But if the customer or consumer finds that they are not capable or cannot afford to spend the increased amount then they will definitely try to quit it but in a long run. Then for that customer price elasticity of cigarettes becomes elastic in the long run. If quantity demanded is completely unaffected by a price change, then If the absolute value of the elasticity of demand is less than 1 at some point, we say that demand is inelastic at that point (Varian, 2006, P 282). You would say that demand is perfectly inelastic at that price, to reflect the fact that quantity demanded is completely unresponsive to a change in price. On a graph with price on the y-axis, perfectly inelastic demand appears as a vertical demand curve. Its slope is negative infinity, which leads to Ed = 0. Looking at the graph above, we can see that a 5 percent increase in price causes no change in quantity demanded. Therefore, Ed = 0 and demand is perfectly inelastic for the tobacco industry. Hence, manager of a cigarette company within the industry should not worry about the taxation from the government or increase in price due to the external environment due to the inelastic demand for the tobacco industry. (Source by Begg Ward, 2007) The variation in consumer demand for cigarettes with respect to income is ambiguous from a theoretical stand point. Cigarettes consumption could be a normal good for which the level of consumers demand increases with income. Alternatively, it could also be a lower good for which the consumer demand drops with income levels. In either case, the presence of such behavior gives us no guidance whatsoever with respect to the extent to which these decisions are rational. Similarly the other major factor which can be affected by the price of the cigarettes is supply. Supply for a product or a service can be defined as the quantity of a good, seller wishes to sell at each possible price. Supply of a good refers to various quantities of good which a seller is willing and able to sell at different prices in a given market, at a particular point of time, other things remaining the same. An aspect of supply which needs attention is that supply is related to scarcity. It is only the scarce good which has a supply price. On the contrary, goods which are available freely have no supply price, e.g. Air is available freely and hence, does not have a supply price (Begg et al, 2005). According to Philp, Dan and Galt (2009) supply relative to the tobacco industry is reflective of the number of competitors (m) setting the price of providing cigarettes packets as a function of the level of technology (T) determines the price (pt), cost of resources, for example, labour, taxations, substitutes, and quality within the manufacture process (F1, F2 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Fm) and other charge (w) i.e. cost of machines and salaries of work force, all add up to become determinants of the number of cigarettes packets to be supplied at each given price. It is represented as QtS = T (pt, F1, F2 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Fm, w) Identical to economics in demand, in the analysis of supply all factors are held constant and quantity is seen as a function of price; QtS = T (pt, F1, F2 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Fm, w) Graphically illustrated as; From the above figure managers can know that a investing in manufacturing the product needs a certain level of supply to overcome from they break even point, therefore higher the investment in price the more the supply. Hence cigarette manufacturing companies offer different brands for the taste e.g. long cigarettes, strong and light cigarettes. Consequently, the managers will push for a higher supply in p1 to maximize profit. If there is plenty of spare capacity of Cigarettes then a business should be able to increase its output without a rise in costs and therefore supply will be elastic in response to a change in demand. If stocks of raw materials and finished products are at a high level then a firm is able to respond to a change in demand quickly by supplying these stocks onto the market supply will be elastic. Conversely when stocks are low, dwindling supplies force prices higher and unless stocks can be replenished, supply will be inelastic in response to a change in demand. If both capital and labour resources are occupationally mobile then the elasticity of supply for a product is higher than if capital and labour cannot easily and quickly be switched. Supply Elasticity is a measure of the degree of responsiveness of quantity supplied to changes in the products own price. Elasticity of supply works similarly. If a change in price results in a big change in the amount supplied, the supply curve appears flatter and is considered elastic. Elasticity in this case would be greater than or equal to one (Lipsey Chrystal, 2004) On the other hand, if a big change in price only results in a minor change in the quantity supplied, the supply curve is steeper and its elasticity would be less than one. As we have seen that demand of cigarette is inelastic we can observe from the graph that supply of cigarette is also inelastic i.e. even a big change in price does not have major change in quantity supplied. It means that when a price increases consumers will not demand for more quantity thats why supply will also remain the same. After knowing that the demand and supply for the tobacco industry is inelastic but the competition within the industry is high. The higher price than the competitors can result less demand for the product, the lower price can increase the demand for the product. It influences managerial decision to look for the new markets where they can reduce their operational and manufacturing cost like cheap labour, as well as look for the new market so that the organisation can generate maximum revenue. This content can be found on the following page: Conclusion This essay completely shows us that how the demand and supply take effects into the market and how principles of demand and supply inform the managerial decision making. From this essay we come to know that the cigarette industry is not that much affected from the higher price that much and its demand in the market is almost remain same. From this essay we come to know that both the supply elasticity and demand elasticity for cigarette industry are inelastic, they are not affected by the price. From the essay we come to know that income effect is significant and positive in case of cigarette industry.

Friday, October 25, 2019

My Philosophy of Education :: Teaching Education Essays

My Philosophy of Education As a future educator with a concentration in reading and social studies, I believe that students learn better in an environment where they are actively learning and teaching one another. I also believe children learn best through actively learning and applying the concepts they should be learning. I will hold myself to the following ethical foundations. I believe that every child, no matter who he/she is or what his/her circumstances are, deserves to receive a good education. I believe that equality for all children is absolutely necessary in the classroom., along with fairness, truth and honestly which play important roles in education. Therefore, I see myself as an existentialist in that children need freedom in education to find out who they are and to discover things for themselves. I also see myself as a progressivist. I believe that the classroom should a place where children feel comfortable and secure. I believe each child is different, and I must adapt my teaching to the way the child best learns. I believe axiology is important in education. The goal of education should not be that the child passes a test, but whether or not he or she actually learns what is needed to be known, and can use that knowledge in their life. My purpose is to guide and help them learn the things they will need for their lives and to do that with a positive attitude. My classroom will be a place where children can feel secure and equal. There will always be diversity in the classroom since no one is ever the same, but everyone deserves to have the best education possible and should not be looked down upon because of their ethnic background or race. I want the classroom to have a positive family-type atmosphere where everyone is supported and no one is put down. It will be a room that encourages the imaginations of the children and their curiosities.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Mystery and Fear in The Withered Arm

How does the social/ historical context ad to the fear and mystery created? In the Withered Arm, Hardy uses various literary techniques to create mystery and fear. Through crafting his characters' personalities, forming events and setting a tone for his story, Hardy treats the reader as If they were one of the characters. Through the story, Information Is drip fed to us as well as the characters which creates mystery, because we experience the consequences of the characters actions along with them.With the additional background knowledge of historical and social context, the reader is already in the loop, so they can gain a deeper understanding of the story. The modern reader knows that this information could often cause much more fear and mystery back then, due to the superstitious persona's of people living in the Victorian sass's. They would have been more easily influenced therefore, in a way, a better audience, as they would have interpreted Hardy's writing exactly the way he wa nted them to- with a feeling of fear and in an atmosphere of mystery. In the first pages of The Withered Arm Hardy sets the tone for his story.Hardy creates a dark tone In chapter one. The title ‘A Loran Milkmaid' means that the story will be sad about someone who lives an Isolated life and seems to blend Into the background. This Is because In the sass It would be very common for women of a somewhat lower class to be milkmaids. The first sentence also creates mystery ‘It was an 80 cow dairy†¦ Troop of the millers, regular†¦ Were all at work', this seems like a very casual setting, very normal and plain. This is the factor, which creates mystery, as the reader thinks that it is almost too normal.The word ‘regular' signifies no break from routine, s if these people have been working this way all their lives. Another quote is the title ‘The Withered Arm' that coincides with pain, or a wound of some kind. This creates fear, as the person affected could be either dead or alive and it could be any of the characters. Hardy thus Invites the reader to engage in his story. Although setting doesn't play a strong part In the story, It Is still Important. Take the description of Road's house for example; ‘a rafter showed Like a bone protruding through the skin'.The reference to the bone creates an ghostly feeling for the reader, as It Is described n quite a graphic manner. It will also cause fear, as the connotations of ‘bone' include other gory images, like blood. This description allows the reader to empathic with Road's situation. The description of her house then goes on to say the walls were made of mud, this shows the reader Just how working class Rhoda is and how life must be a struggle for her. We now know that Farmer Lodge, whom she fell pregnant with, was of a higher class, and when he abandoned Rhoda, he clearly left her with very little possessions.In the 19th Century, no husband or an illegitimate hill would immed iately lower a woman's social status, as would lack of expensive material objects. Hardy also uses various personalities In the Withered Arm, to add detail to the story. As each character arrives In the plot, some Information Is slowly revealed. He has designed them for the sole purpose of creating mystery and fear for the reader. Gertrude, as a female character would have been objectified in the Victorian times. Characters I. E. Farmer Lodge, causes us to consider what Gertrude purpose in Holystone is.What with the age difference between her and Lodge, they would have title to discuss and this leads us to think that Lodge only wants her for her looks. For example, ‘†¦ Married experience sank into proneness and worse', shows how through the decay of Gertrude limb along with her looks, Mr. and Mrs. Lodges' connections had slowly started to deteriorate. Mentions of Gertrude wishes to ‘regain some at least of her personal beauty give us an idea of the immense stress pu t on women in Victorian times to look good for their men. This again creates mystery as we wonder what Lodge's intentions with Gertrude are.The events, which follow the arrival of Gertrude Lodge in Holystone, create a sinister atmosphere. Although Rhoda had never met the new bride, she carried a strong grudge against her, apparently caused by her ever-growing Jealousy. One night Rhoda had a supernatural vision of the young Mrs. Lodge with ‘†¦ Features shockingly distorted†¦ ‘ and ‘†¦ Wrinkled as by age†¦ ‘ In addition, Gertrude flashes her new ring at Rhoda taunting her, the figure thrust forward its left hand mockingly. This shows the reader that Rhoda has not only taken an immediate dislike to Gertrude but also creates mystery because the reader yearns to find out why.In the vision, Rhoda grabs Ghost Gertrude by the arm, which connects with a deeper emotion of envy. Road's seeming obsession with Gertrude, and finding out everything about her has led to this. Subconsciously, Rhoda may be so Jealous of Gertrude hands, which are so opposite to her own, that she may want to ruin them in some way, to prevent Lodge from being attracted to her. This is why she grabbed Gertrude in her ‘dream'. To cause her hands to Wither' and at the same time lose their youthfulness. By introducing Rhoda Brooks ‘horrid fascination' with Gertrude limbs Hardy creates fear.At first, the reader may think that her interest has something to do with Road's insecurities, which could be triggered by the fact, that she has over-worked her own hands, as she is a milkmaid. However, when Rhoda begins to inquire deeper, through the quote: move never told me what sort of hands she has†, it suggests that she wants even more knowledge. By calling Gertrude ‘she', it's similar to fear or discomfort of using her name, as if it is taboo. As the quote is an implied question, we immediately want the answer.The word ‘sort' entails t hat there are many types of hands, which seems strange to the reader. Maybe Rhoda thinks that the ‘quality of hands signifies Gertrude class. There is also already reference to the title Withered Arm'. There is almost a sickening feeling of some kind of affection towards Gertrude, but Hardy also creates fear, by never fully explaining the two women's relationship. Thomas Hardy manages to create both mystery and fear, through the question asked in the aftermath of Road's late night encounter. â€Å"What was the noise in your chimer last night†¦ You fell off the bed surely? Hardy gives the question to Road's son, who is already an inquisitive character; this gives IM an innocent incentive, to enquire without suspicion. The mystery is created for the reader because supposedly, Road's encounter was a dream, however if Road's son heard it too, we begin to question the likeliness of what we've been told. Hardy has created doubt for the reader, and we are now suspicious of both Rhoda and Gertrude. Fear is created for Rhoda as she has already assumed that â€Å"it was not a dream†, but now her uncertainties have been confirmed. The question comes directly and used it effectively.As the reader, we are both surprised and fearful of this ‘incubus' which is apparently haunting Rhoda. As the truth hits both reader and character at the same time, Hardy makes it easier for us to empathic with her. When Farmer Lodge, lies to Gertrude about Rhoda and her son, secrecy is introduced into the Withered Arm. The quote â€Å"l think he lives with his mother, a mile of two off' creates mystery, in the sense that, a son would not really be something to keep secret from one's new wife. As the reader, we know that the boy is in fact Farmer Lodge's son, so when we catch him in the lie, we wonder how trustworthy he may be.In Victorian times, ‘a mile or two off would be a very long distance, and would usually mean, outside the village. Why would such a wealt hy man, worry about a 3rd class worker from his farm, who probably lives quite a Journey away. Is Lodge ashamed of his ex-family, or is he simply trying to hide their ongoing contact from Gertrude? The reader once again asks questions, as does Gertrude, but Farmer Lodge seems to keep his answers vague in order to avoid confrontation. It is as if he is trying to conceal his old life from his new life, so we get the idea that he is living in constant fear of his two worlds colliding.This mysterious factor not only make us question whether he loud be willing to sever his ties with his other family to prevent sabotaging his new ‘sugar-daddy profile but also whether he may be hiding other, more private secrets†¦ During the women's Journey to visit Trundle, Hardy uses pathetic fallacy to create fear. The quote thick clouds made the atmosphere dark, though it was yet only early afternoon' shows how the weather sets a dampener on the mood, consequently creating tension between Ge rtrude and Rhoda.It is common knowledge, that rain and dark clouds indicate bad weather, which can generate fear not only through setting the mood. To show that something strange is about to happen a connection between gloominess and the supernatural is established, as the quote goes on to say: ‘The wind howled'. This not only personifies the wind, by giving it a voice of its own but also, howling can be linked to werewolves which are supernatural animals often used in stories to portray the supernatural, therefore creating a mysterious and unnerving feeling for the reader.By slowly, introducing negative vocabulary in this section such as ‘dismally Hardy has captivated our attention, as he prepares us for the event, which will quickly change the course of the story. This yet again shows his consideration of structure and language to create mystery and fear. The curse in this tale is the reason why Gertrude develops a Withered Arm'; however, it is not confirmed who cursed Gertrude until she visits Conjurer Trundle. In the sass's medical science was not half as advanced as it is today therefore people would turn to look for answers in the thing they knew best; superstition.This is why Gertrude unfortunate incident is explained purely through magic; Conjurer Trundle would not have enough information in order to diagnose her with medical facts to back up his sections. Hardy's purpose for Trundle, as a character, is to incorporate fear in the story. From the very beginning, the reader has reason to be suspicious of the Conjurer. The quote â€Å"they say†¦ He had powers other folks had not† spoken by Gertrude, means that he would have a unique ability to perform rituals and spells of the mystical sort in order to aid the village people in their issues.The fact that Rhoda says they also adds mystery, as often the insecurity of the Victorian townspeople, would leave people with unanswered questions. It is indefinite where this information is co ming from. The hesitation in Road's voice would show that people would have a wary attitude toward Conjurer Trundle. His name in itself has a mysterious sound as to conjure' could mean to summon'. Would this mysterious figure ‘summon' some spirits to reveal Rhoda as Gertrude enemy?Hardy has written in such detail to ensure that both reader and character are wary of his personality. Another quote, its the work of an enemy causes distrust towards Trundle from the readers and the characters view, as they wonder how Trundle could have possibly made such a quick diagnosis and thus makes the reader evaluate how reliable Trundle is. In addition, how the verdict is delivered in such a short and spunky sentence shows the reader what a solemn character he is, almost replying nationalistically as if he was preoccupied elsewhere.The suddenness of it creates fear and the reader is almost frightened of reading on. When afterwards Gertrude attitude has changed so eerily in such a short amoun t of time the reader can be confident that the ‘enemy described is Rhoda herself. On of the scariest events is the death of Road's son, not a main character in the story but an event, which abruptly ends the story; thus making it more mysterious. When Gertrude visits the jail to fulfill her last spell in order to cure her arm, there is a shocking twist of fate.The quote ‘a second shriek rent the air of the enclosure' warns the reader that there have been consequences of the actions of a character. The word ‘shriek signifies pain, and as the same word is used to describe the feeling of relief coming from Gertrude to the horror-stricken Rhoda, more fear is created. How can these two women have anything more in common? The reader is afraid of what Rhoda will do next, as Hardy has already shown us her true colors so we know exactly what she is capable of. By changing the plot, Hardy creates even more mystery.As the reader, we were sure that a happy ending would ensue, we now once again fear for Gertrude, as her ‘enemy has returned. This broadens the possibilities of what could happen next and creates both mystery and fear. Hardy has yet again induced a feeling of uncertainty for the reader, by leaving the story at such an ambiguous point. Throughout ‘The Withered Arm' we have had to use our own Judgment and instincts to try to predict the story, which is what has created a fair part of the mystery for the reader. We also fear our own opinion, of making a false accusation and surprising ourselves.Hardy has pressured us into doing this and therefore induced fear from the very beginning, while withholding information, without us even reading too deep into the story. Through leaving certain questions unanswered, I empathetic with people from the Victorian era, who would also have been kept in the dark. I appreciate the way that Hardy has molded his story to create mystery and fear, through his individual writing style. He has kept the rea der attentive, thinking through every detail carefully while making his story engaging and entertaining. Yet another successfully created literary piece by Thomas Hardy.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

A Biography of Sidney Poitier

In 1967, a press conference with Sidney Poitier, at that time one of the most successful and popular American actors and certainly the most famous African-American actor, turned from his many roles on screen and stage and became something else entirely.Due to a rash of racial riots across the nation at that time, Poitier was asked pointed questions concerning whether or not he was in favor of the racial riots, his theories on segregation, and other racially oriented topics (Goudsouzian).It was at that point that something happened which changed the course of Poitier’s life as well as the role of African-Americans everywhere- rather than avoid the question, turn the focus back to his fame or storm off in a rage, Poitier came to the realization that it was impossible for him to separate his status as an entertainment icon from his obligation to use his fame to advance the cause of minority rights in America.   Since then, Poitier has done just that.This research will discuss A ram Goudsouzian’s pivotal 2004 biography of Sidney Poitier, not only as a review of this book, but also in an effort to try to better understand how and why Poitier has become one of the most influential African Americans since the end of Civil War.Author’s PurposeWhen gaining a better understanding of why Goudsouzian chose Poitier as the subject of his book, one not only gains an understanding of the author’s purpose in writing the book, but also a grasp of the major social and historical issues that are tackled through a book which is biographical at its core, but becomes much more expansive as it unfolds.First, one must realize that Goudsouzian is not a biographer by nature, but in fact is a history writer, which is why Poitier was chosen as the subject of the book.By choosing a pivotal historic African-American who bridges the gap between the faà §ade of Hollywood and the real world of the urban streets of the nation, Goudsouzian has been able to tell not o nly the story of the struggles of an ambitious African-American man coming of age in the racially charged 1950s and 1960s, but also of a man who parlayed his fame not into a mere vehicle for his own enrichment, but to try to aid and support his entire race.Goudsouzian’s Central ThemeEarlier, the point was made that Goudsouzian’s book is much more than biography or history, but is rather a powerful combination of the two.   Looking beyond this assertion, it is also interesting to explore the central theme of the book, which can fairly be identified in one word-perseverance.For Poitier, perseverance has meant the constant jumping of hurdles, placed in front of him by a society which still wrestles with the issue of equality for African-Americans, even decades after the strife which advanced African-Americans significantly, and almost a century and a half after a bloody Civil War which settled the issue of African-American freedom once and for all.   For African-Ameri cans in general, it would seem that Goudsouzian paints perseverance as a struggle to gain equal footing with the mainstream of America.This being said, however, a fair critique of Goudsouzian’s approach is in order.   It would seem that the author is too quick to always portray Poitier, and African-Americans as perpetual underdogs who never gain any significant ground.However, in truth, much progress has been made in cause of racial equality, while keeping in mind of course that there is much progress yet to come.   Goudsouzian could have presented a bit more of a balance in his contrast.